|The Brain Mind Center|
Some Topics from the bookTuning into the Universe
Connected to the Environment
How Many Senses?
Right & Left Brain
History of Mind Drugs
Prescription Drug Abuse
Psychiatry versus Biology
Mechanisms of Brain Dysfunction
Nutrition & Brain
Allergy and the Brain
Wheat Gluten and the Brain
Is Stress Real ?
Is Stress Real?
We Prefer Clean Air, Pure Water, Healthy Food and Clear Minds
Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
Amino acids are the most abundant neurotransmitters in the brain. Nichols suggested: “amino acids synapses exceed those of all the other neurotransmitters combined…amino acids are responsible for almost all the fast signalling between neurons, leaving predominantly modulatory roles for the other transmitters.”
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and is distributed in all regions of the brain. Aspartate is closely related to glutamate and the two amino acids are often found together at axon terminals. Neurons synthesize glutamate and aspartate and are independent of dietary supply.
Three types of receptors for glutamate have been identified: N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) and kainate( KA) receptors. The three chemicals that identify glutamate receptors are also potentially neurotoxic and are routinely used in animal experiments to investigate the harmful effects of over-stimulating glutamate receptors. It is known that following brain injury, glutamate is released from injured cells and extends brain damage by over exciting neurons in the neighborhood. Neuronal death often follows overstimulation. While many chemicals used in research block this overstimulation, none are in use medically.
Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, derived from glucose, which is transaminated in the Kreb’s cycle to glutamine and then converted to GABA by the enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase. The production of GABA appears to be independent of the dietary supply of glutamine but requires dietary pyridoxine.
Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found mostly in the brain stem and spinal cord. A major discovery that adds complexity to the already confusing story of neurotransmitters is that glycine acts as a co-transmitter in excitatory NMDA synapses. Nong et al stated:” Recognition that glycine potentiates NMDAR-mediated currents as well as being a requisite co-agonist of the NMDAR subtype of 'glutamate' receptor profoundly changed our understanding of chemical synaptic communication in the central nervous system. The binding of both glycine and glutamate is necessary to cause opening of the NMDAR conductance pore.”
L-Arginine is the precursor of endogenous nitric oxide (NO), which is a vasodilator acting via the intracellular second-messenger cGMP. In healthy humans, L-arginine induces peripheral vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation due to an increased NO production. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) induces peripheral vasodilation via stimulating prostacyclin receptors.
A mixture of branch-chain amino acids, leucine, valine and isoleucine will reduce tardive dyskinesia and movement disorder that is caused by anti-schizophrenic drugs. Tarvil, has been marketed in the USA that delivers 6.0 grams of the 3 amino acids per packet. A dose of 6 gm three times a day has been recommended.
Order Books: Click the Add to Cart buttons on the left to order printed books from Alpha Online ( mail delivery to US and Canada). Download eBooks Click the Download button on the right to order eBooks (PDF file) for download. Click book title (center column) to read topics from each book.
Further reading: Alpha Nutrition Program, Neuroscience Notes, Intelligence and Learning -- Persona Digital Books.
You are viewing the Brain Mind Center at Alpha Online, a Division of Environmed
Research, founded in 1984 at Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Online Since 1995. Alpha Nutrition is a trademark and a division of Environmed Research
All Alpha Education books, eBooks and Starter packs are ordered online.
We are located at Sechelt, close to Vancouver, British Columbia,
Canada. Persona Digital Books
is the publisher of The Human Brain, Neuroscience Notes and related books.