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Topics from the book,
The Human Brain
by Stephen Gislason

Brain Drug Issues & Warnings

Some Topics from the book

Tuning into the Universe
Connected to the Environment
How Many Senses?
Misunderstanding Mind/Body
Mental Illness?
Right & Left Brain
Neurons
Neuroscience Notes
History of Mind Drugs
Prescription Drug Abuse
Psychiatry versus Biology
Schizophrenia
Psychosomatic
Mechanisms of Brain Dysfunction
Nutrition & Brain
Allergy and the Brain
Wheat Gluten and the Brain
Attention Deficits
Depression
Is Stress Real ?
Preventing Strokes
Elixir of Sanity & Joy
Memory
Self Regulation
Intelligence
Thinking
Is Stress Real?
Catecholamines
Dopamine
Amino Acids
Serotonin

We Prefer Clean Air, Pure Water, Healthy Food and Clear Minds

Neurotransmitters Catecholamines

Norepinephrine and dopamine are utilized in brain circuits which regulate all body functions, mood, emotions, and cognitive abilities. These transmitters are made from amino acids, supplied as proteins in foods or as free amino acids in formulas such as Alpha ENF. Phenylalanine and tyrosine are first converted to l-dopa, then dopamine, which can be converted to norepinephrine and epinephrine.

Norepinephrine is widely distributed in the brain and is the neurotransmitter in neurons that determine consciousness, sleep rhythms, attention, and vigilance. NE cell clusters within the brain's arousal complex (locus coeruleus) organize sleep patterns. In rats, painful, uncontrollable electrical shocks induce “depression” and are associated with early depletion of NE in the locus coeruleus.

Underproduction of NE may lead to depression. Some antidepressants, especially imipramine, selectively alter the synthesis of NE, but paradoxical experimental results tell us that therapeutic changes are not achieved by just increasing one transmitter but rather influencing the net arousal balance in the mesh of arousal circuits.

Imipramine, the grandmother of the family of tricyclic antidepressants, has at least a triple action on NE, acetylcholine, and histamine circuits. Imipramine's cousin, amitriptyline, works more on the serotonin neurons and also has marked anti-acetylcholine activity. Both drugs are also good antihistamines.

The substrates of NE, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and l-dopa are not powerful antidepressants, but they may have a contributing role in a well thought-out neurochemical recipe. Stimulants, including caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines act in a NE-increasing mode with temporary increase in psychic energy and a sense of well-being. They also influence the dopamine system.

Repeated use of these drugs leaves the over stimulated brain circuits in a state of confusion, with disturbances of psychic energy, thinking, feeling, and behaving. Withdrawal from these drugs is associated with other marked disturbances.

Amphetamines will induce agitated, paranoid, and violent states in susceptible people. As street drugs, amphetamines have major antisocial consequences. Antidepressants of the MAO-inhibitor group (parnate, nardil) increase norepinephrine levels but not serotonin.

More about Neurotransmitters

Catecholamines
Dopamine
Serotonin
More about amino acids

The Brain Mind Center

Topics from the book,  The Human Brain by Stephen Gislason MD

Further reading:   Alpha Nutrition Program, Neuroscience Notes,  Intelligence and Learning

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Human Brain in Health and Disease
Neuroscience Notes

Learn More about Alpha BMX, elemental nutrient formula.

Two Books Alpha Nutrition Program, Human Brain and the Alpha Alpha BX formula are bundled as the Brain Rescue Starter Pack, available online at a  discount. More Information about the Brain Starter Pack.    

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