Immunology Notes
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Immunology Notes
by Stephen Gislason MD

Immunology Notes is an introduction to immunology for the sophisticated general reader, students, and health professionals.

Some Topics from the Book

Immune Cells
Clone Selection
Cell Signaling
AntiViral Defense
Influenza Defense
Drug allergy
Autoimmune Systemic Lupus
Autoimmune Diabetes
Food Tolerance
Food Allergy

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The greatest health achievement of the past century has been the control of devastating, epidemic, infectious diseases by immunization (vaccination). Edward Jenner invented immunization when he inoculated an eight year old boy with scrapings of cowpox lesions. Jenner had noted the similarity of cowpox and small pox lesions, and was observant enough to notice that milkmaids, exposed to cow pox lesions on the teats of cows, did not get smallpox.

Two hundred years later one major viral disease, smallpox infections, were eradicated  from the planet. This masterful success of immunization was achieved by the World Health Organization (WHO) by the relentless vaccination of all people who came in contact with the disease, until the smallpox virus had no vulnerable hosts to infect. The smallpox virus is incapable of an independent existence. With no remaining human hosts, the virus is unable to reproduce.

Diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, measles, mumps, influenza, typhoid, cholera, yellow fever, hepatitis, and polio are among the diseases now controlled by immunization.

An Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)  published revised guidelines for immunization.  Vaccines licensed since 2002 include human papillomavirus vaccine; live, attenuated influenza vaccine; meningococcal conjugate vaccine; rotavirus vaccine; tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid,  acellular pertussis vaccine and herpes zoster vaccine.

New combination vaccines that have become available are 1 measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine; 2 tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine; 3 tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis and inactivated polio/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. 

For young children, hepatitis A vaccines are  recommended. All children aged 6 months through 18 years and adults who are 50 years or older should receive annual  influenza vaccines. 

Worldwide, rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children  less than 5 years of age.  Rotavirus is a deadly disease in the developing world  that vaccination  may prevent.  A human-bovine rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq® was recommended in 2006  by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices  for routine vaccination of U.S. infants. Three doses of RotaTeq at ages 2, 4, and 6 months are required.  


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Feeding Children
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Managing Food Allergy
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Immunology Notes is part of the Alpha Education series developed by Environmed Research. The books are copyright by Environmed Research and all rights to reproduction by any means are reserved. We encourage readers to quote and paraphrase topics from Immunology Notes published online and expect proper citations to accompany all derivative writings. The author is Stephen Gislason MD. The date of the most recent publication is 2014. The URL to the book description is

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